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2017考研英語一真題答案及解析(解析版)

正保考研教育網整理   2016-12-27 10:46 【 】【我要糾錯

2017年全國研究生統一考試于12月24、25、26日進行,正保考研教育網為大家整理了英語一答案及解析,請大家參考。

National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM)

2017年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試英語(一)

 

Section I  Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding “yes!” _1_ helping you feel close and _2_ to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a _3_ of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you _4_ getting sick this winter.

In a recent study _5_ over 400 health adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs _6_ the participants’ susceptibility to developing the common cold after being _7_ to the virus .People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come _8_ with a cold ,and the researchers _9_ that the stress-reducing effects of hugging _10_ about 32 percent of that beneficial effect. _11_ among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe _12_ .

“Hugging protects people who are under stress from the _13_ risk for colds that’s usually _14_ with stress,” notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie. Hugging “is a marker of intimacy and helps _15_ the feeling that others are there to help _16_ difficulty.”

Some experts _17_ the stress-reducing , health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called “the bonding hormone” _18_ it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mother and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain , and some of it is released into the bloodstream. But some of it _19_ in the brain, where it _20_ mood, behavior and physiology.

 

1[A] Unlike  [B] Besides  [C] Despite  [D] Throughout

【答案】B
【解析】答案為B。根據本句句內邏輯關系,“it turns out that hugs…”說明擁抱還有其他結果。因此,前文的邏輯關系應該為“除此以外”。

 

2[A] connected  [B] restricted  [C] equal  [D] inferior

【答案】A
【解析】答案為A。本題實為邏輯關系題。根據句子前后結構“helping you feel close and ______(2)”,我們可以判斷,由于空格處與前面內容通過and連接,說明我們要選擇一個單詞與feel close同義,并且要與后面介詞to 連用。因此,通過對于四個選項含義判斷,選項A有“關聯的”含義最為符合。

 

3[A] choice  [B] view  [C] lesson  [D] host

【答案】D
【解析】答案為D。此題為固定搭配。“a host of”表示大量的。其他選項搭配不合理。

 

4[A] recall  [B] forget  [C] avoid  [D] keep

【答案】C
【解析】答案為C。根據題干信息“a warm embrace might even help you ______(4)getting sick this winter.”中,出現“even”,表示“甚至”,說明此句話與上一句話存在遞進的邏輯關系。上一句話的語義表示“擁抱可以帶來大量的好處”,因此,這句話也應該表示擁抱的好處。選項C“避免生病”最符合文意。

 

5[A] collecting  [B] involving  [C] guiding  [D] affecting

【答案】B
【解析】答案為B。本題考查現在分詞做后置定語,需要選擇一個現在分詞修飾前面的study”。根據句子含義,應該表達“關于涉及400人”的研究。

 

6[A] of  [B] in  [C] at  [D] on

【答案】D
【解析】答案為D。本題為固定搭配。根據句義“examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs______(6)the participants'…”考查固定搭配“examined the effectson sth”。

 

7[A] devoted  [B] exposed  [C] lost  [D] attracted

【答案】B
【解析】答案為B。根據句義“common cold after being______(7)to the virus.”,可知選項B:暴露在細菌中,符合文意。

 

8[A] across  [B] along  [C] down  [D] out

【答案】C
【解析】答案為C。本題為固定搭配。結合語境,選項C:得感冒,搭配最為合理。

 

9[A] calculated  [B] denied  [C] doubted  [D] imagined

【答案】A
【解析】答案為A。本題為動詞與賓語從句搭配問題。根據原文“the researchers______(9)that the stress-reducing effects of hugging ______(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”動作的主語是“研究人員”,連接后面的賓語從句“擁抱減小壓力的作用”,并且有數據支撐。賓語從句部分應為研究人員計算推測出的結果。

 

10[A] served  [B] required  [C] restored  [D] explained

【答案】D
【解析】答案為D。本題為動詞含義考查。根據文章內容,“the stress-reducing effects of hugging ______(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”本題同樣考查研究人員做出的研究結果,選項D“解釋”符合語境要求。

 

11[A] Even  [B] Still  [C] Rather  [D] Thus

【答案】A
【解析】答案為A。本題為邏輯關系題。根據文章上下文邏輯,下文是對上文做進一步說明,因此選擇遞進關系比較符合邏輯關系。正確答案為選項A

 

12[A] defeats  [B] symptoms  [C] tests  [D] errors

【答案】B
【解析】答案為B。形容詞與名詞搭配問題。根據語境“the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe______(12)”所選詞要與severe構成合理搭配,再結合前文語境是關于對于擁抱實驗的結果。因此,正確選項為B

 

13[A] minimized  [B] highlighted  [C] controlled  [D] increased

【答案】D
【解析】答案為D。本題為形容詞修飾。根據原文“Hugging protects people who are under stress from the ______(13)risk for colds that's usually ______(14)with stress”,需要選擇一個形容詞來修飾risk。選項D:增加的風險,更符合原文語境。

 

14[A] equipped  [B] associated  [C] presented  [D] compared

【答案】B
【解析】答案為B。此題為固定搭配題。A B選項不可以和with連接。B.associated可以和with連接,意為“與……有關聯”。D.comparedwith連接表示“和……相比”不符合文章要求。

 

15[A] assess  [B] moderate  [C] generate  [D] record

【答案】C
【解析】答案為C。此題考查動賓搭配。根據原文“Hugging is a marker of intimacy and help ______(15)the feeling…”,需要選擇一個動詞能夠和后文的“the feeling”搭配。

 

16[A] in the face of    [B] in the form of

 [C] in the way of        [D] in the name of

【答案】A
【解析】答案為A。此題為短語搭配題。A. in the face of,意思為:面對。結合文章語境,“面對困難”搭配最為合理。

 

17[A] transfer  [B] commit  [C] attribute  [D] return

【答案】C
【解析】答案為C。此題為固定搭配題。即:attribute sth to sth

 

18[A] because  [B] unless  [C] though  [D] until

【答案】A
【解析】答案為A。此題為邏輯關系題。原文語境:“often called "the bonding hormone"______(18)it promotes attachment in relationships”從本句來看,前后文屬于因果邏輯關系。

 

19[A] emerges  [B] vanishes  [C] remains  [D] decreases

【答案】C
【解析】答案為C。本題為動詞辨析。語境信息“But some of it ______(19)in the brain”,選項C表示它仍然在大腦里存在,最符合文章要求。

 

20[A] experiences  [B] combines  [C] justifies  [D]influences

【答案】D
【解析】答案為D。本題為動詞辨析。根據原文語境,“where it ______(20)mood, behavior and physiology.”能夠搭配后面并列的三個賓語“情緒、行為、和生理”,只有D“影響”。

【試題點評】完型填空為了測試考生實際應用英語的能力和語感。具體說來,是從語篇的角度綜合測試考生的閱讀理解能力、詞匯的掌握和對英語習慣用語的熟悉程度、以及語法規則的靈活運用。這部分大家一定要注重思路和尋找線索能力的訓練,一般做題的基本思路是,根據已知信息去填空,根據空前后的線索來選擇填什么。比方說,題目讓考生填主句的內容,那么從句中就會有相應的說明。題目讓考生填動詞,原文常常在別的地方出現這個動詞的同義詞。那么如何判斷呢?首先根據需要填寫動詞后面出現的賓語,找到有同一賓語的句子,該句中的動詞就是所需填寫詞的同義詞。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網強化階段英語強化完型填空部分有重點講解。

 

 

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

First two hours , now three hours—this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight , at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.

Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security procedures in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804,which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea ,provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans’ economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.

Last year, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons---both fake and real—past airport security nearly every time they tried .Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving Chicago’s O’Hare International .It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become—but the lines are obvious.

Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel , so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.

There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.

It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock. Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck’s fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.

The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.

 

21. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804 is mentioned to______.

[A] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide

[B] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks

[C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. Airports

[D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection

【答案】B
【解析】答案為B。細節題。根據關鍵詞EgyptAir Flight 804定位到第二段。該關鍵詞所在句為本段第二句,第一句為段落中心句,意為“美國人樂意忍受費時的安全程序作為加強安全的回報”,選項Bsecurity checks是原文security procedures的同義替換,故選項B正確。

 

22. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports?

[A] New restrictions on carry-on bags.

[B] The declining efficiency of the TSA.

[C] An increase in the number of travelers.

[D] Frequent unexpected secret checks.

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。細節題。根據關鍵詞long waits at major airports定位到第二段。關鍵詞所在句Enhanced security measures, combined with a rise in the airline travel have resulted in long waits at major airports中的have resulted in是題干contributes to 的同義詞,根據此句可知,排長隊的原因有兩個:增強的安全措施和航空旅行的增加,選項Can increase in the number of travelers(旅客人數的增加)是對航空旅行的增加的同義替換,航空旅行增加意味著旅客人數的增加,故選項C正確。

 

23. The word “expedited”(Line 4, Para. 5) is closest in meaning to ____.

[A] quieter

[B] faster

[C] wider

[D] cheaper

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。詞義題。根據關鍵詞expedited和選項內容定位到第五段。本段是在講過安檢時的PreCheck這一程序,該關鍵詞所在句的后一句提到“這節約了每個人的時間”,顯然通過預先安檢的乘客進入安檢通道的時間減少了,即速度“更快了”,四個選項中選項B符合文意,故正確。

 

24. One problem with the PreCheck program is _______.

[A] a dramatic reduction of its scale

[B] its wrongly-directed implementation

[C] the government’s reluctance to back it

[D] an unreasonable price for enrollment

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題。題干問的是“預先安檢項目的一個問題是什么”,第六段中出現了PreCheck's fatal flaw,其中flaw是題干中problem的同義替換,故將答案定位至該詞組所在句,該句意為“這個價格一直是預先安檢的致命缺陷”,所以“預先安檢項目的一個問題”是價格問題,故選項D正確。

 

25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text ?

[A] Getting Stuck in Security Lines

[B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution

[C] Less Screening for More Safety

[D] Underused PreCheck Lanes

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。主旨題。題干問本文最好的題目是哪一個?文章第一段指出乘飛機的現象:隨著機場大規模安全航線的增加,乘客提前到達機場的時間變得越來越長。第二段指出美國人樂意忍受費時的安全程序作為加強安全的回報。第三段提出由于加強了安全措施,機場登機的效率變得很低。第四段分析造成第三段的現象的原因:政府沒有預料飛機旅行的陡增。第五段給出對策:使更多的人加入到預安檢項目。第六段分析具體介紹加入這一項目的流程并指出其缺陷:價格不合理。第七段指出預安檢項目實施前景不客觀,指出等到這個項目起作用很長時間已經過去了,即具有“來遲的”的特點。縱觀全文,文章圍繞PreCheck展開,指出了其缺陷,并給與了作者的評價:等到這個項目起作用很長時間已經過去了。縱觀四個選項,選項B PreCheck--a Belated Solution(預安檢——一個遲來的解決方案)符合文章主旨。

 

Text 2

“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii’s last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity’s view of the cosmos.

At issue is the TMT’s planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko , that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world’s most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea’s peak rises above the bulk of our planet’s dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.

Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environments have long viewed their presence as disrespect for sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.

Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea’s fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the island’s inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.

Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii’s shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.

The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.

26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates ______.

[A] its conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.

[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.

[C] the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.

[D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。細節題。根據題干關鍵詞Queen Liliuokalani定位在第一段第一句話“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers”,意為“古老的夏威夷人都是天文學家”。這句話暗示的內容就是選項B:天文學在古老的夏威夷社會的重要性。

 

27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to ______.

[A] its geographical features

[B] its protective surroundings.

[C] its religious implications.

[D] its existing infrastructure.

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。細節題。根據關鍵詞Mauna Kea定位到第二段。該段指出Mauna Kea是連接夏威夷島和天堂的地方,是世界上最強大的望遠鏡所在地,其峰頂條件允許望遠鏡獲得非凡的清晰度。所以答案是選項A:它的地理特征。

 

28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because ______.

[A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.

[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.

[C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.

[D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.

【答案B

【解析】答案為B。細節題。根據題干關鍵詞opposed定位到第三段。選項B中的reminds them of與原文a reminder of是同義詞,選項B中的humiliating與原文painful是同義詞,選項B中的history是對原文the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation的高度概括與總結。

 

29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy ______.

[A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.

[B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.

[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.

[D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.

【答案】C
【解析】答案為C。細節推斷題。根據題干關鍵詞astronomy可以定位到第五段的第三句話。第三句話指出“天文學和夏威夷文化都設法回答關于我們是誰,我們來自哪里以及我們將去何方這樣的大問題”。所以答案是選項C:可能揭示夏威夷文化的起源。



30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of ______.

[A] severe criticism.

[B] passive acceptance.

[C] slight hesitancy.

[D] full approval.

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。態度題。通讀全文可以得知作者的態度是支持的。

 

 

Text 3

Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.

The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?

A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.

While all of these countries face their own challenges , there are a number of consistent themes . Yes , there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash , but in key indicators in areas such as health and education , major economies have continued to decline . Yet this isn’t the case with all countries . Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society , income equality and the environment.

This is a lesson that rich countries can learn : When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different .

So, what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations , as a measure , it is no longer enough . It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person’s sense of well-being.

The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth . But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress .

 

31.Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he ______.

[A]praised the UK for its GDP.

[B]identified GDP with happiness .

[C]misinterpreted the role of GDP .

[D]had a low opinion of GDP .

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題。根據題干的定位信息可以定位到第一段第一句,從該句中可以看出Kennedy對于GDP是持有否定態度的。從下文也可以看出作者也認為GDP有許多缺點,所以作者引用Kennedy 來使文章更具有說服力。故選項D為正確答案。

 

32.It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that ______.

[A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern .

[B]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK .

[C]the UK will contribute less to the world economy .

[D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP .

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。本題是段落推斷題,題干中指明了段落,需要進行推斷得出答案,第二段中,作者首先表示英國的GDP被許多西方世界羨慕,然后作者反問如果英國現狀真如英國的GDP反映的那么的好,為什么還會有多達1700萬的民眾都投票要脫歐呢。由此可見英國民眾認為GDP好并不代表英國社會現狀真的好。故選項B為答案。

 

 

33.Which of the following is true about the recent annual study ?

[A]It is sponsored by 163 countries .

[B]It excludes GDP as an indicator.

[C]Its criteria are questionable .

[D]Its results are enlightening .

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題。根據題干信息和關鍵詞 annual study 可以定位到第三段第一句,其中選項Denlightening sheds some light on that question同義替換。故選項D為正確選項。

 

34.In the last two paragraphs , the author suggests that ______.

[A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom .

[B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline .

[C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP .

[D]it requires caution to handle economic issues .

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。細節題。從最后一段可以看出GDP不再夠用了,它沒有包含重要的因素。選項Cit is essential to consider factors beyond GDP正好是該句的完美改寫。因此選項C是正確答案。

 

35.Which of the following is the best title for the text ?

[A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being , a UK Lesson

[B]GDP Figures , a Window on Global Economic Health

[C]Rebort F. Kennedy , a Terminator of GDP

[D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。主旨題,需要通過全篇來選答案,這篇文章在開頭引用了Kennedy對于GDP的負面評價,并通過英國脫歐這個案例來引出需要考慮GDP這個評價機制的好壞,中間各段在分析英國GDP表現好,但實際英國社會現狀卻不好,最后在倒數第二自然段指出This is a lesson that rich countries can learn. 故選項A是正確答案。

 

 

Text 4

In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government.

The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trial failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.

Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.

The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act”.

The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution for bribery.” The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court,” assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”

But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires well-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.

Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society—that all are equal in treatment by government—is undermined. Good governance rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.

The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.

 

36. The undermined sentence (Para.1) most probably shows that the court _______.

[A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties.

[B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell.

[C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.

[D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。根據第一段的劃線句子聯系文章第一句話:雖然最高法院沒有判定Robert McDonnell受賄罪,但是在道德上卻對他的行為嗤之以鼻。由此可以鎖定選項C中的 was contemptuous of,也就是說法院其實非常輕視Robert McDonnell的行為。

 

37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves _______.

[A] leaking secrets intentionally.

[B] sizable gains in the form of gifts.

[C] concrete returns for gift-givers.

[D] breaking contracts officially.

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。從第四段可以知道,對腐敗的定義是:只有受賄者給予了行賄者實際的好處,例如 a contract or regulation, 如果提供的不是具體的好處,僅僅只是:arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event, 那么這種行為就不是受賄。由此可以得出答案為B

 

38. The court’s ruling is based on the assumption that public officials are _______.

[A] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.

[B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues.

[C] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.

[D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。從第五段可以知道,法院的裁定是建立聽取其選民的意見,按照他們的利益行事。所以原文中的constituents對應選項Csupporters,支持者。所以答案選擇C

 

 

39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to _______.

[A] awaken the conscience of officials.

[B] guarantee fair play in official access.

[C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying.

[D] inspire hopes in average people.

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。根據第六段第一句話:執法力度需要加強市民及其當選代表,而不是法院獲得接近政府的平等的機會。equality與選項Bfair play相對應,因此選B

 

40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is _______.

[A] sarcastic.

[B] tolerant.

[C] skeptical.

[D] supportive

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。本題考查的是態度題,從文中最后一句話:可以看出作者認為法院的裁定是進步的,因此可以看出作者對此的態度是:支持的。因此答案為選項D

【試題點評】今年四篇文章難度一般。在我們整體的考研閱讀當中,所需要具備的一個最重要的能力就是如何去看到題目之后,定準了位,并且找到那個我們真正應該找到的位置,在四個選項當中去找意思的原文最匹配的選項。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網強化階段英語強化閱讀理解部分有重點講解。

 

 

Part B

Directions:

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered box. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

 

[A]The first published sketch, “A Dinner at Poplar Walk” brought tears to Dickens’s eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine. From then on his sketches ,which appeared under the pen name “Boz” in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation.

[B]The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens’s fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, became a national figure.

[C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the ten-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour’s pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a drawing Dickens felt was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the change, went into his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837, and was first published in book form in 1837.

[D]Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. A moralist, satirist, and social reformer. Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society.

[E]Soon after his father’s release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter’s eye for transcribing the life around him especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines.

[F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England’s southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British navy pay office –a respectable position, but wish little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dicken’s mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dicken’s birth, his mother’s father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family’s increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren’s Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as “the young gentleman.” His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father’s imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed Dicken’s greatest wound and became his deepest secret. He could not confide them even to his wife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction.

[G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, e traces an orphan’s progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dichens’ as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters.

D → 41. → 42. → 43. → 44. → B →45.

【答案】41.F  42.E  43.A  44.C  45.G

【解析】這篇文章講解了狄更斯的人生歷程,第一段固定,總述了狄更斯的歷史地位,之后從他的出生描述到他家庭的變故,從他父親出獄描述到他職業生涯的起步,從他的短劇描述到他的小說,最后以他最成名的作品霧都孤兒收尾。故而正確順序為:D → 41.F→ 42.E→ 43.A→ 44.C→ B →45.G

【試題點評】新題型要求考生從整體上把握文章的邏輯結構和內容上的聯系,理解句子之間、段落之間的關系,對諸如連貫性、一致性等語段特征有較強的意識和熟練的把握,并具備運用語法知識分析理解長難句的能力。新題型有三種題型,不同的題型考查的重點不同,因此有不同的解題思路和技巧,需要考生全面把握,尤其是對于完形填句(段)題和排序題,是對語言能力和閱讀理解能力的綜合測試,因此在要求上遠遠高于小標題選擇題和觀點例證題,考生有必要對這類題型的答題思路多練習,以提高自己在這個部分的應試能力。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網強化階段英語強化班新題型部分有重點講解。

 

 

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

 

The growth of the use of English as the world`s primary language for international communication has obviously been continuing for several decades.(46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.

Complex international, economic, technological and culture change could start to diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests which enjoy advantage from the breath of English usage would consequently face new pressures. Those realistic possibilities are highlighted in the study presented by David Graddol. (47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.

David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleak economic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations. Alongside that,(48)many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages. If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish ,Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other language such as Japanese, French and German, spreads.

 (49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors. The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly &1.3 billion for the UK in invisible exports and our other education related explores earn up to &10 billion a year more. As the international education market expands, the recent slowdown in the number of international students studying in the main English-speaking countries is likely to continue, especially if there are no effective strategic policies to prevent such slippage.

The anticipation of possible shifts in demand provided by this study is significant:(50) It gives a basis to all organization which seek to promote the learning and very different operating environment. That is a necessary and practical approach. In this as in much else, those who wish to influence the future must prepare for it.

【答案】

46.但盡管說英語的人數在進一步擴大,仍有跡象表明,英語的全球優勢地位在不久的將來會逐漸減弱。

47.有些人可能認為英語的全球地位很穩定,英國年輕人不需要額外的語言能力。大衛的分析因此會結束這些人的自滿情緒。

48.很多國家正把英語納入小學課程,但是似乎并沒有人給予英國的學童和學生更大的鼓勵,讓他們能去熟練地掌握其他語言。

49.英語的一些機構負責向其他國家的人民和廣泛的教育行業提供語言服務,大衛·格蘭多指出的這些變化都給這些機構帶來了明確而重大的挑戰。

50.預測到需求可能產生變化,給這些組織奠定了基礎,可以做出規劃,來迎接可能是一個截然不同的運營環境。

【試題點評】翻譯考查考生在準確理解的基礎上,按照英語語法結構拆分句子,準確、通順翻譯漢語的能力。本次考試的翻譯考點主要包含對并列句、定語從句、狀語從句及固定詞組等翻譯的考查。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網基礎階段英語基礎班翻譯部分有重點講解。

 

Section III Writing

Part A

51. Directions

You are to write an email to James Cook , a newly-arrived Australian professor , recommending some tourist attractions in your city . Please give reasons for your recommendation .

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET .

Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address . (10 points)

【參考范文】
  Dear Professor,
  I am writing this letter to recommend you some famous attractions of this city. I have lived here since 1990 and have been familiar with every corner of our city.
  Firstly, considering that you are the fresh visitor to our city, so it is advisable for you to have a look upon the City’s Museum, which is beneficial for quickly learning the comprehensive perspective, such as the development of this city, and its specific culture. What’s more, another tourist site deserving your attention is our special and sophisticated buildings in the center of the city, since these buildings are telling residents the gradual changing habits and lifestyles, which are helpful to assimilate yourself into this city.

  I do hope that you would find these tourist attractions worthy of you visit and appreciation.

                                                      Sincerely yours,

                                                       Li Ming

【試題點評】具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網基礎階段英語基礎作文部分有重點講解。

 

Part B

52. Directions

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay , you should

1describe the pictures briefly,

2interpret the meaning , and

3give your comments.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.( 20 points )

【參考范文】

  Here are two pictures, both interesting but with sharply contrasted implication. As is vividly depicted in the first photo, a man sitting in sofa looking at his bookshelves and satisfied with the quantity, which successfully arouses our curiosity. On the contrary, the second picture describes that another teenager set his aim at complete 20 pieces books reading, finally completing the contrast is supposed to be given further analysis.
  With the increasing pace of modern life, perhaps no change has characterized the past decade more dramatically than wide spread of reading. Naturally, it brings us both advantages and disadvantages. As for my part, the latter outweighs its former. On the top of list is that people became flippancy without reading. In addition, there is the other point that no one can ignore. It is universally admitted that a nation will recede with reading. No other case can better illustrate the consequences of what I have discussed than the picture above.

  According to the analysis above, it is advisable for us to take steps to maximize its positive effects and minimize the disadvantage. Of all the steps, mass media tends to function essentially in the job. Only in this way can we make the best of the value of reading an embrace a bright future.
【試題點評】具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網基礎階段英語基礎作文部分有重點講解。

 

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