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2016年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試英語(二)試題答案及解析

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2016年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試英語(二)

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Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Happy people work differently. They're more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence  1    firms work, too.

  Companies located in place with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.  2   , firms in happy places spend more on R and development).That's because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking  3   for making investment for the future.

  The researchers wanted to know if the  4   and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would  5   the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities' average happiness  6   by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.

    7  enough, firms' investment and R intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were   8  . But it is really happiness that's linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities  9   why firms there spend more on R To find out, the researches controlled for various 10   that might make firms more likely to invest like size, industry , and sales-and-and for indicators that a place was 11   to live in, like growth in wages or population. They link between happiness and investment generally  12  even after accounting for these things.

  The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors 13   to "less confined decision making process" and the possible presence of younger and less 14   managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.'' The relationship was  15  stronger in places where happiness was spread more   16  . Firms seem to invest more in places.

    17  this doesn't prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least   18  at that possibility. It's not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help 19   how executives think about the future. It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward -thinking and creative and  20  R more than the average," said one researcher.

  1. [A] why                        [B] where                        [C] how                        [D] when

  【答案】C

  【解析】根據空格所在句子可以看出,空格處應該是一個引導賓語從句的從屬連詞,做influence的賓語。四個選項的意思中,只有C. how引導后面的內容做influence的賓語,前后意思合理。

  2. [A] In return                [B] In particular                [C] In contrast                [D] In conclusion

  【答案】B

  【解析】空格的前一句話的內容是:坐落在幸福人群所在地的公司投資更多的錢。空格所在句的內容是:坐落在幸福人群所在地的公司在…方面投入更多的錢。很顯然,前后句子是總分關系。選項中,只有B選項可以體現總分關系。

  3. [A] sufficient                [B] famous                        [C] perfect                [D] necessary

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據空格處前后的內容,_____ for making investments for the future是做后置定語修飾longer-term thinking和happiness。幸福,這種持久的思維模式對于對未來進行投資_______,四個選項中只有D. necessary 做后置定語符合前后內容。

  4. [A] individualism        [B] modernism                [C] optimism                [D] realism

  【答案】C

  【解析】空格處的內容與inclination for risk-taking由and連接,構成并列關系,后面that come with happiness定語從句既修飾空格處的內容,也修飾inclination for risk-taking,所以選項中可以由that come with happiness修飾的只有C選項optimism。

  5. [A] echo                        [B] miss                                [C] spoil                        [D] change

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格處的內容和the way companies invested構成動賓搭配。只有D選項可以和the way companies invested構成通順語義。故D項正確。

  6. [A] imagined                [B] measured                        [C] invented                [D] assumed

  【答案】B

  【解析】原文:So they compared U.S. cities' average happiness_______ by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas. 所以他們比較美國城市的平均幸福,這種幸福是根據蓋洛普在上市公司的投資活動地區民意調查來________。 A imagined 想象,D assumed 假定與民意調查的客觀性是不符的,故排除,C invented 發明,與文意不符,故選B measured,衡量,測量。

  7. [A] sure                [B] odd                [C] unfortunate        [D] often

  【答案】A

  【解析】此空的答案需要結合文章上下文來判斷。這句話和本篇完型的第二段的首句的含義是相同的。本段首句其實是對于這一中心的重復闡述,因此選A。

  8. [A] advertised                [B] divided                        [C] overtaxed                [D] headquartered

  【答案】D

  【解析】原文:firms' investment and R intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were _________.公司的投資與研發強度與公司所_______的地區的幸福度相關。依據第7題的答案,我們可以推斷,這句話所填寫的單詞和located應該是近義,故選D,headquartered設立總部。

  9. [A] explain                        [B] overstate                        [C] summarize                [D] emphasize

  【答案】A

  【解析】原文:…could something else about happier cities ______ why firms there spend more on R 此句也是對于本文中心的再次論證。還有其他的什么可以__________公司在幸福的城市加入研發投入力度嗎? 這句話之后就是具體的原因陳述。故選A express 解釋,闡釋。

  10. [A] stages                        [B] factors                        [C] levels                        [D] methods

  【答案】B

  【解析】原文:To find out, the researchers controlled for various ________that might make firms more likely to invest - like size, industry, and sales ,為了找到答案,研究人員控制了各種各樣的可能會讓公司加大投資的_______--比如大小、行業和銷量--,聯系上下文,我們可以看出,這個空格其實就是下文size, industry, and sales的上義詞,可以包含這三個名詞的內容。故選B factors 原因,因素。

  11. [A] desirable                [B] sociable                        [C] reputable                [D] reliable

  【答案】A

  【解析】該句意思為:研究者掌控了各種使公司更愿意投資的因素(比如規模、行業、銷售),也掌控了居住起來____的住處的征兆(比如工資或人數的增長)。此處需填入形容詞,前后兩句為并列關系,感情色彩應保持一致,所填詞應和空前more likely to invest更可能投資,以及空后like舉例的內容漲工資一致,也是好事,所以答案desirable可取的、令人滿意的為正確選項。

  12. [A] resumed                [B] held                                [C] emerged                [D] broke

  【答案】B

  【解析】即使說明這些問題,總體來講,快樂與投資之間的關系____。Resume繼續、重新開始,hold保持不變,維持,emerge出現,break破裂。前后為遞進,說明這些問題后,二者關系應仍然保持不變,所以hold為正確答案。

  13. [A] attribute                [B] assign                        [C] transfer                [D] compare

  【答案】A

  【解析】該句意思為:快樂與投資之間的相互關系對年輕的企業特別強烈,作者把這一點____于"缺少編纂的做決定過程"。此處考搭配,attribute…to把……歸咎于,assign…to把……指派給,transfer…to把……傳遞給,compare…to把……相比較,其中attribute…to符合文意,作者把這一點歸因于于"缺少編纂的做決定過程"。

  14. [A] serious                        [B] civilized                        [C] ambitious                [D] experienced

  【答案】D

  【解析】該題為并列平行關系考查,and前后情感色彩、所屬范疇應保持一致,younger并列,應為less experienced缺少經驗的,故為正確答案。

  15. [A] thus                                [B] instead                        [C] also                        [D] never

  【答案】C

  【解析】該句話上一句為The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong,此句為The relationship was 15 stronger,顯然,二者之間為并列關系,因此選擇also也。

  16. [A] rapidly                        [B] regularly                        [C] directly                [D] equally

  【答案】D

  【解析】此題考查副詞。四個選項中,A選項rapidly意為"迅速地", B選項regularly意為"常規地",C選項意為directly"直接地",D選項equally"平等地"。此處討論的是公司投資與快樂之間的關系。空格后指出,相較于在快樂不平等的地方,或者幸福感有巨大鴻溝的地方,公司更愿意在大多數人都較為幸福的領域投資, D選項equally是對inequality的反義復現,因此,D選項是正確選項。

  17. [A] After                        [B] Until                                [C] While                [D] Since

  【答案】C

  【解析】此處考察上下文的邏輯關系。上文指出,公司愿意在幸福的領域里投資, 而空格后則提到"這并不能證明幸福引發了公司擴大投資或者采用較長遠的眼光看問題",顯然,這二者之間是轉折關系,正確選項為C選項While "然而"。

  18. [A] arrives                        [B] jumps                        [C] hints                        [D] strikes

  【答案】C

  【解析】空格所在句的前半句質疑了投資與幸福的關系,后半句的作者表現的態度是"believe", 因此此處要填入一個表積極立場的詞,且能與后面的at that possibility構成搭配, 表明"作者"的認可態度。A選項arrive"到達",B選項jumps"跳躍",D選項strikes"打擊;罷工",均不能與at that possibility搭配,C選項hints"暗示"符合語意,因此正確答案為C。

  19. [A] shape                        [B] rediscover                        [C] simplify                [D] share

  【答案】A

  【解析】結合文意,此處是在正面論述"當地文化和氛圍"對公司運營的影響,且二者之間的因果關系一直貫穿全文。四個選項中,A選項shape意為"形成,塑造" B選項rediscover"重新發現", C選項simplify"簡化",D選項share"分享", 其中只有A 選項最貼近語意,因此正確答案為A。

  20. [A] pray for                 [B] lean towards                [C] give away                [D] send act

  【答案】B

  【解析】此處考察固定詞組。 A選項pray for意為"為……祈禱",B選項lean towards意為"向……傾斜",C選項give away意為"泄露; 失去;贈送",D選項send out意為"發送,發出"。空格所在句的前后語意為"快樂的人比普通人更加的具有正向思維,更有創造力,并且更加的_____研究和發展。"可知最符合文意的只能是選項B。

  【試題點評】2016年完形填空的整體思路仍是以實詞為主的,緊跟往年出題思路。文章主旨在文章的首句及每一段的開頭句中,答案分配也比較均勻。本題型為了測試考生實際應用英語的能力和語感。具體說來,是從語篇的角度綜合測試考生的閱讀理解能力、詞匯的掌握和對英語習慣用語的熟悉程度、以及語法規則的靈活運用。這部分大家一定要注重思路和尋找線索能力的訓練,一般做題的基本思路是,根據已知信息去填空,根據空前后的線索來選擇填什么。比方說,題目讓考生填主句的內容,那么從句中就會有相應的說明。題目讓考生填動詞,原文常常在別的地方出現這個動詞的同義詞。那么如何判斷呢?首先根據需要填寫動詞后面出現的賓語,找到有同一賓語的句子,該句中的動詞就是所需填寫詞的同義詞。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網沖刺階段英語沖刺班的完型填空部分有重點講解,在強化班完形填空及考研詞匯中也有所涉及。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

  It's true that high-school coding classes aren't essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon's School of Computer Science.

  However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it's not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers - but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It's not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.

  Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.

  The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that's become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but "we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in," said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.

  The students in the Flatiron class probably won't drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the "Ruby on Rails" language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn - how to think logically through a problem and organize the results - apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.

  Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes -for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want -the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that -the better.

  21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______

  [A] complete future job training

  [B] remodel the way of thinking

  [C] formulate logical hypotheses

  [D] perfect artwork production

  【答案】B

  【解析】觀點題。根據題干Cortina holds回文定位在第二段。第二段指出Cortina認為過早的接觸電腦是有益的,緊接著指出當小孩子學習電腦科學,他們就學習了如何去開發手機應用程序,或者創作藝術,或者驗證假設。對于他們來說與大孩子相比,改變思維并不難。綜上所述,[B]remodel the way of thinking是對原文"transform their thought"的同義置換。

  22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________

  [A] experience

  [B] interest

  [C] career prospects

  [D] academic backgrounds

  【答案】B

  【解析】事實細節題。根據題干關鍵信息"in delivering lessons for high-schoolers"、"Flatiron has considered",定位到第三段。整個第三段在敘述Flatiron School。其中,第三行The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but "we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in"(高中生們上同樣的課程,但是"我們力圖以他們的興趣來調整課程"),表明了該校開設課程的依據是"學生的興趣",故選[B] interest。

  23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________

  [A] help students learn other computer languages

  [B] have to be upgraded when new technologies come

  [C] need improving when students look for jobs

  [D] enable students to make big quick money

  【答案】A

  【解析】細節題。根據Deborah Seehorn 定位到文章第五段最后一句。Deborah說他們學習的技能(如何思考問題具有邏輯性并組織結果)可以應用到編碼語言中去。選項[A]幫助學生學習另外的電腦語言是對這句話的概括。

  24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to ______

  [A] bring forth innovative computer technologies

  [B] stay longer in the information technology industry

  [C] become better prepared for the digitalized world

  [D] compete with a future army of programmers

  【答案】C

  【解析】推理題。根據題干關鍵詞"the last paragraph"和"Flatiron students"回文定位在最后一段。最后一段第一句指出Flatiron的學生不會全都進入IT界。緊接著第二句說明培養編碼人員不是唯一目的,第三句進一步指出這些學生將會一生"被電腦包圍"(生活在電腦時代),對比四個所給選項,[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world與原文意思一致,故正確。

  25.The word "coax"(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________

  [A] persuade

  [B] frighten

  [C] misguide

  [D] challenge

  【答案】A

  【解析】詞義題。根據題干關鍵信息"coax"(Line 4, Para.6),定位到最后一段第四行how to coax the machine into producing what they want(如何…電腦生產他們想要的),且該部分是與how computers think(電腦是如何思維的)并列的,都是學生學習的具體內容。正是因為兩者并列,因此根據單詞think可知coax同樣含有一定比喻色彩,且coax指的是"讓電腦生產他們想要的"一種手段或方式。persuade"勸說,勸誘",即"勸誘電腦生產他們想要的",語意恰當,是正確選項,本題正確答案為[A] persuade。

Text 2

  Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands-once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.

  The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened ."The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ," said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as "endangered," a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the" threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.

  Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let "states" remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species," Ashe said.

  Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn't go far enough. "The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, " says biologist Jay Lininger.

  26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____.

  [A]its drastically decreased population

  [B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage

  [C]a desperate appeal from some biologists

  [D]the insistence of private landowners

  【答案】A

  【解析】本題屬于細節題,考查了考生對文章首段中關于草原雞數量的變化的理解。根據對首段首句當中生物學家預測的數量是2百萬,而在首段末句出現but轉折以及末句當中關于草原雞現在真實的剩余數量只有2萬2千只,都可以說明草原雞的數量急劇的下降;另外,這道題還有一種做法是通過第二段首句的主語的作用,某些情況下,文章中間段落的首句主語起到承上啟下的作用,那么中間段落首句主語就會有概括上一段的作用,本文第二段的首句:The crash was a main reason USFWS decided to formally list the bird as threatened. 就是對第26題題干和正確選項的同義替換,根據第二段第一句的主語:the crash (這種暴跌),對應正確選項A。

  27.The "threatened" tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____.

  [A]was a give-in to governmental pressure

  [B]would involve fewer agencies in action

  [C]granted less federal regulatory power

  [D]went against conservation policies

  【答案】D

  【解析】本題屬于推理題,根據題干信息:the "Threatened"tag 令許多環境學家感到失望,定位到第二段的第三句,因此,原因應該出自第三句之后,而第四句和第五句中間有很明顯的轉折詞but,因此答案定位在第五句,很多同學可能會問,這里并沒有表示原因的詞去與題干當中的in that進行對應,但是在我們的鉆石卡的課程中提到,原文當中給出原因的并不一定是直接給出表示原因的連詞或者介詞,在本文第三句的but Ashe and others argued that the "threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservation approaches. 當中的gave這個詞是"使得"的意思,A使得B如何如何,也就是A是B的原因,因此這道題的答案是D (違反了保護措施)。

  28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.

  [A]agree to pay a sum for compensation

  [B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat

  [C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job

  [D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations

  【答案】B

  【解析】本題屬于推理題,根據題干當中給出的位置信息(第三段)以及表示條件與結果的邏輯關系的if這個信息,可以迅速定位到第三段的第一句,其中題干當中的if與文章當中的as long as 進行對應,而題干當中的表示結果的部分與as long as 之前進行對應,因此,正確選項應該出自as long as 之后,也就是原文當中的:they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. "簽訂一系列管理計劃去恢復草原雞的棲息地",對應到的正確選項是B (volunteer to set up an equally big habitat 幫助搭建同樣大小的棲息地)。

  29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.

  [A]the federal government

  [B]the wildlife agencies

  [C]the landowners

  [D]the states

  【答案】D

  【解析】本題屬于細節題。答案定位在文章第三段最后一句,從Ashe所說的話中"states remain in the driver's seat for managing the species"可以得出,選項D the states在管理物種方面起著領導作用。

  30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.

  [A]industry groups

  [B]the win-win rhetoric

  [C]environmental groups

  [D]the plan under challenge

  【答案】B

  【解析】本題屬于推斷題。答案定位在文章最后一段,從Jay Lininger所說的話中,可以得知他認為政府應該為導致鳥類瀕臨滅絕的產業負責任,因此可以得出,他最可能支持本段開頭所提出的雙贏的說法。

Text 3

  That everyone's too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.

  What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read: "Give up TV" or "Carry a book with you at all times." But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, "is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption." Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.

  In fact, "becoming more efficient" is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. "The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt," writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and "we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them." No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.

  So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us "step outside time's flow" into "soul time." You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. "Carry a book with you at all times" can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you're "making time to read," but just reading, and making time for everything else.

  31. The usual time-management techniques don't work because .

  [A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind

  [B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading

  [C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them

  [D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

  【答案】[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

  【解析】細節題。根據題干回文定位到第二段第一句"what makes…management techniques don't seem sufficient",,但是這句并沒有提及原因。真正的原因是第二段最后一句"Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient"。(深度閱讀需要的不僅僅是時間,而且僅僅通過高效率所獲得的那種時間也不夠),因此選項D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed為正確答案。

  32. The "empty bottles" metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to .

  [A] update their to-do lists

  [B] make passing time fulfilling

  [C] carry their plans through

  [D] pursue carefree reading

  【答案】B

  【解析】細節題。根據題干回文定位到第三段第五句:we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles(days, hours, minutes) as they pass。故正確答案應該與to fill…相一致。這句話中將時間單位天,小時和分鐘比喻成了不同大小的瓶子。而壓力來自于我們填充這些大小不一的瓶子時,即把自己的時間充實起來時。故正確答案為選項B。

  33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps .

  [A] encourage the efficiency mind-set

  [B] develop online reading habits

  [C] promote ritualistic reading

  [D] achieve immersive reading

  【答案】D

  【解析】細節題。根據題干定位到第四段第二句:…such ritualistic behavior helps us "step outside time's flow" into "soul time. (這種儀式化行為指代有助于我們從拜托時間流進入靈魂閱讀),soul time 即選項D 中immersive reading (沉浸式閱讀),故正確答案為選項D。

  34. "Carry a book with you at all times" can work if .

  [A] reading becomes your primary business of the day

  [B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with

  [C] you are able to drop back to business after reading

  [D] time can be evenly split for reading and business

  【答案】A

  【解析】細節題。根據題干中的carry a book with you at all times can work if, 可以定位到第四段倒數第二句 "providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state"(假定你經常沉浸在閱讀中,以至于閱讀成為一種默認設置),因此可以確定選項A reading becomes your primary business of the day(閱讀成為你一天中的主要事情)為正確答案。

  35. The best title for this text could be .

  [A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading

  [B] How to Find Time to Read

  [C] How to Set Reading Goals

  [D] How to Read Extensively

  【答案】B

  【解析】主旨題。根據文章首段轉折之后出主旨。But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.(但是其中一個特別悲哀的抱怨是:沒有時間閱讀)。第二、三、四段都在論證深度閱讀才是解決之道。因此選項Dhow to find time to read為正確答案。

Text 4

  Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.

  Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.

  Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.

  From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.

  Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. Whlie younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those "just getting started in life" face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.

  Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said." I can't afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen." Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young."I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn't have college degrees,"Schneider said."I don't think people are capable of that anymore. "

  36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is .

  [A] trying out different lifestyles

  [B] having a family with children

  [C] working beyond retirement age

  [D] setting up a profitable business

  【答案】B

  【解析】根據題干給出的mark, successful life等詞可以定位到第二段的第一句話,successful life可以找到原詞,而mark對應milestone,including后面的內容就是這種生活的特征,包含"結婚,有孩子,有家,60歲退休",和選項對比,只有B項符合原文給出的特征。

  37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to .

  [A] favor a slower life pace

  [B] hold an occupation longer

  [C] attach importance to pre-marital finance

  [D] give priority to childcare outside the home

  【答案】C

  【解析】根據題干給出的段落序號可以定位到第三段,另又提到young people,故可以定位到第三段開頭第一句話。題干問的是年輕人傾向于……,題干中的tend在這句話中可以找到同意置換詞more likely,句子中后面有5個to do表示年輕人傾向于做什么,所以答案就在這些動詞不定式中。和選項對比,只有C項符合原文的含義"婚前或者有孩子之前要有經濟保障",屬于同意替換。

  38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will .

  [A] become increasingly clear

  [B] focus on materialistic issues

  [C] depend largely on political preferences

  [D] reach almost all aspects of American life

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據題干給出的the priorities and expectations等詞可以定位到第四段的第一句話的中間,that后面的內容是對這兩個名詞的修飾,故答案應該在這個從句中。和選項對比,只有D項符合原文。

  39. Both young and old agree that .

  [A] good-paying jobs are less available

  [B] the old made more life achievements

  [C] housing loans today are easy to obtain

  [D] getting established is harder for the young

  【答案】D

  【解析】根據題干給出的young and old等詞可以定位到第五段開頭,這句話有冒號,解釋key point,所以答案應該在冒號之后,題目問的是他們同意什么,也就是觀點,所以可以再縮小范圍為believe后面的內容為正確選項的含義。和選項對比,只有D項符合原文,屬于同意替換。

  40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?

  [A] He found a dream job after graduating from college

  [B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success

  [C] His parents' good life has little to do with a college degree

  [D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging

  【答案】C

  【解析】根據題干給出的Schenider可以定位到最后一段開頭。這段話開頭就說這個人認為今天的生活更艱難,后面的內容都在介紹他的生活。因為題干除了這個人名之外并沒有給出其他更細定位的信息,可以選擇從選項定位入手反推正確答案。C項說到父母的好生活在第四、五句有提到,尤其引號中的內容和選項相符,故為正確答案。

  【試題點評】英二閱讀基本圍繞經濟類、生活類、文化類、法律類等主題來選材;出題方面,主要題型包括細節題、推理題、詞義句意題、主旨題等。而在我們整體的考研閱讀當中,所需要具備的一個最重要的能力就是如何去看到題目之后,定準了位,并且找到那個我們真正應該找到的位置,在四個選項當中去找意思的原文最匹配的選項。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網沖刺階段英語沖刺班閱讀理解部分有重點講解,在基礎班閱讀基礎部分的段與篇、謀篇、題型精析課程,和強化班的閱讀理解A部分也均有涉及。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] Be silly

  [B] Have fun

  [C] Ask for help

  [D] Express your emotions.

  [E] Don't overthink it

  [F] Be easily pleased

  [G] Notice things

  Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age.

  (1) As adults, it seems that we're constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their wellbeing instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.

  41_____

  【答案】D (Express your emotions)

  【解析】emotions一詞在本段中原詞復現了兩次,而且出現了其下義詞,比如sad, angry,本段最后一句提到對待情緒的方式是:acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately。選項D與此完全對應。因此確定正確答案為D選項。


  (2) What does a child do when he's sad? He cries. When he's angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we feel appropriately and then-again, like children-move on.
  42______

  【答案】F (Be easily pleased)

  【解析】該段通過舉例來說明段落主題,提到it cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed,本句話的含義是"雖然禮物不值錢,但是讓她特別開心"。并且核心詞overjoyed與小標題F中pleased屬于近義詞。該段第二句話在轉折后提到the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels,即"這些東西對我們的幸福水平影響很小。"接著最后一句總結到"感激生活中的小事情是提升我們幸福感的一個好方式",因此本段重點在于強調要感激生活中的小事情,所以正確答案是F選項。

  A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was 9 years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.

  43_______

  【答案】A (Be silly)

  【解析】該段開頭提及一個問題,那么問題的答案正是本段的中心句。第二句正是對問題的解答,根據本句話的前半部分:if we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, 核心詞silliness與選項A中的silly為同源詞,因此確定選項A為正確答案。

  Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which would, of course, have a positive effect on our happiness levels.

  44______

  【答案】B (Have fun)

  【解析】首先明確本段中第二句為轉折句,在找段落中心時,是必讀部分。本句話含義是"成年人有能力按照自己的想法去享受時光(enjoy the things)",緊接著下句舉例說明享受的這些快樂的事情分別有哪些。因此本段重點在于說明成年人可以按照自己的意愿享受快樂時光。故選擇 Have fun。

  The problem with being a grownup is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)-it doesn't matter, so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.

  45______

  【答案】E (Don't overthink it)

  【解析】該段主題句是段落首句it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy,強調"我們不應該著急要快樂"。第二句借科學家的話提到這樣做的不良影響,下文更是引用哲學家莊子的話來證明這一論點,最后一句再次突出,我們應以孩子為榜樣,對于孩子來說,快樂不是一個目標,而是他們生活方式的自然副產品。可見,該段整體上是總分的結構,先提出論點再論證。此外too hard與選項E中的overthink屬于近義表達,natural與overthink是反義復現。因此,答案選E。


  Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said: "Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness." And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live.


Section III Translation

  46.Directions:

  Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead began shopping emotionally-which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.

  【參考譯文】超市旨在吸引顧客在自己店內停留盡量長的時間。原因很簡單:顧客在店里停留的時間越長,看到的商品就會越多;而看到的商品越多,你就會買的越多。超市有大量商品。根據食品營銷研究院所說,普通超市大概有44000種不同的商品;很多超市更是會比普通超市多上萬種商品。眾多選擇足以讓顧客面臨各種信息,不堪重負。根據腦部掃描實驗,需要做這么多的決定很快就會使我們難以承受。大約購物40分鐘以后,大部分顧客就無法試圖做出理性的選擇,而會沖動購物--此時,在購物車里,我們已經裝了一半根本沒想買的東西。

  【試題點評】原文出自《國家地理》中的Surviving the Sneaky Psychology of Supermarkets超市購物的心理學,考查考生在準確理解的基礎上,按照英語語法結構拆分句子,準確、通順翻譯漢語的能力。本次考試的翻譯考點主要包含對并列句、定語從句、狀語從句及固定詞組等翻譯的考查。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網沖刺階段英語沖刺班的翻譯部分有重點講解,在基礎班語法、長難句基礎部分,和強化班的翻譯及長短句部分也均有涉及。

Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions:

  Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to

  1) thank him, and

  2) give you advice

  You should write about 100 on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  【參考范文】

  Dear Jack,

  Your letter of congratulations was received. Thank you for your nice words on my winning the contest. In the letter, you asked me about the skills to do translation, so the following are my advice for you.

  Firstly, you should analyze the sentence structure, thus catching the meaning of the sentence. Secondly, find the proper words to translate the meaning of the source language into the target language. Thirdly, revise your translation at least three times to check if there are any mistranslations or missed meanings.

  I hope my advice helpful. Wish to see you soon.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  【試題點評】具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網沖刺階段英語沖刺班的作文部分有重點講解,在基礎班的詞匯基礎、語法、長難句基礎等部分,和強化班的寫作部分也均有涉及。

  Part B
  
  48. Directions:

  Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  【參考范文】

  Portrayed in the above pie chart is a survey of college students' purposes of traveling. The number of students who take traveling as a chance to see beautiful scenes accounts for 37%, while students who would like to travel to relieve pressure from study take up 35 %.

  There are several reasons behind the trend revealed in the above chart. To begin with, as the present society is filled with fierce competition, most college students nowadays are under great pressure to stand out among others or to lunch a decent job after graduation. Therefore, they tend to choose traveling as an outlet to relieve their stress. Secondly, with the fast advancement of the living standards of Chinese families, traveling is increasingly affordable to most college students. For this reason, students prefer to travel to see different views to enjoy themselves or to make some friends.

  From my perspective, no matter what reason it is for, traveling is of great benefit for students to acquire a broader perspective of life. If time permits, we college students should go to see the outside world more often.

  【試題點評】具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網沖刺階段英語沖刺班的作文部分有重點講解,在基礎班的詞匯基礎、語法、長難句基礎等部分,和強化班的寫作部分也均有涉及。

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